Category Archives: Cheat Sheets

Most Expensive Materials on Earth Per Gram Cheat Sheet.

Most Expensive Materials on Earth Per Gram Cheat Sheet
 
 
The most expensive materials in the world are priced based on their rarity verses demand, difficulty of production or the criminal risk involved in obtaining, buying or selling them.
 

Rhodium – Chemical element Rh, atomic number 45

Rhodium cost per gramRhodium a hard, silvery, durable precious metal that’s resistant to corrosion. It is the rarest of all non-radioactive metals. It can be found as a free metal in river sands in North and South America, or as a chemical in the copper-nickel sulfide ores of Ontario, Canada.

The cost or Rhodium fluctuates significantly. As roughly 80% of Rhodium principal application is in automotive catalytic converters, the sharp decline of the global automobile industry sent rhodium prices tumbling. After reaching a high of over $320 per gram, Rhodium prices collapsed more than 90% to a low of $24 per gram.

Source: infomine.com.

Platinum – Chemical element Pt, atomic number 78

Platinum cost per gramPlatinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, gray-white transition precious metal. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production.

Like all heavy metals, Platinum demonstrates toxic effects on living organisms via metabolic interference, but due to its corrosion resistance, it is not as toxic as some of the other heavy metals.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Platinum is priced high due to it’s shortage in the earth’s crust on one hand and it’s abundant and important usage on the other hand.
Price fluctuates considerably over time and between markets and is currently at $33 per gram.

Source: platinumpriceoz.com.

Gold – Chemical element Au, atomic number 79

Gold cost per gramGold is a bright, reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Gold is a non-toxic transition metal and one of the least reactive of all chemical elements (though will dissolve in aqua regia), it is a great conductor and does not corrode.

Gold occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver, as well as naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds. 75% of the worlds Gold comes from South Africa and the rest mostly from Russia.

The price of gold fluctuates in time and between markets and is currently around $40 per gram.

Source: goldprice.org.

Rhino Horn

Rhino Horn  cost per gramUnfounded claims regarding it being a cure for cancer and hangovers have driven the large demand of Rhino Horn in some Asian countries – primarily Vietnam.

Most of the Rhinoceros population is in South Africa, thus most of the poaching is done there.

With Rhino Horn poaching being illegal and the rhinoceros population being terrifyingly low, at the same time as demand from Vietnam and other Asian countries is on the the rise, the price for this material has sky rocketed to as high as $133 per gram, though averaging at about $65.

Learn more: savetherhino.org.

Heroin

Heroin cost per gramHeroin is a highly addictive, opiate, pain killing, primarily recreational drug. Heroin acts as a GABA agonist by binding to opiate receptors, thus reducing the inhibitory effect of GABA on dopaminergic neurons. Activation of the dopaminergic reward pathway leads to a feelings of euphoria.

Heroin is processed from morphine – a naturally occurring substance extracted from poppy seeds. Heroin is produced world wide but over 80% of heroin is produced in Afghanistan. Heroin usage on it’s own can be quite deadly, but when factoring in the life-loss associated with heroin trafficking and heroin funded terrorism the world wide death rate from the drug gets shockingly high.

The criminal element of the production and trafficking of heroin on one hand, and the high demand for the drug on the other hand, accounts for it’s high price. The price of heroin fluctuates between markets and over time and can cost as much as $400.

Source: unodc.org.

Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine cost per gramMethamphetamine is mainly used as a recreational drug, though does have some medical uses. Methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant, it causes dopamine to be released in large quantities, leading to a feelings of euphoria.

Production of methamphetamine for recreation is illegal. It involves a lengthy multi-step cook process. The primary ingredient in the meth recipe is ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine are chemicals found in over-the-counter congestion reducing medicines. Even though those medications are over-the-counter, they are strictly regulated – buyers must present a photo id and are limited to the amount they may buy. Cooking meth is a hazardous process due to toxin production and the changes of explosion.

The difficulty in obtaining the ingredient, the complexity of the process and of course the criminal element all contribute to the high price of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine cost varies significantly between markets, with cost per gram of as little as $60 in the United States, $80 in China and up to $500 in Australia.

Source: crimecommission.gov.au.

Cocaine

Cocaine  cost per gramCocaine is a stimulant, mostly recreational drug. Cocaine is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, it binds to and blocks the dopamine transporters, causing dopamine to buildup in the synapse, leading to a feelings of euphoria. Cocaine also blocks the reuptake of serotonin – leading to a feeling of happiness, and blocks norepinephrine – increasing heart rate, blood flow, blood pressure and blood sugar, which in turn increases the amount of oxygen going to the brain, and assists in thinking clearer and faster.

Cocaine is derived from the coca leaf. Coca plants are mostly grown in South America. Demand for the drug is very high – cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug after cannabis. The price of cocaine varies significantly between markets, and can cost as little as $9 or as much as $290 per gram.

Source: globaldrugsurvey.com.

LSD – Lysergic acid diethylamide

LSD  cost per gramLSD is a psychedelic drug that is most commonly used as a recreational drug. LSD was first made by Albert Hofmann in Switzerland in 1938 from a chemical found in ergot fungus that grows on rye and other grains. Scientists are unclear on exactly how LSD effects the central nervous system, but it’s believed to interferes with serotonin receptors in the brain, thus effecting alertness, apatite, and muscle control. LSD in considered not addictive because tolerance develops quickly, preventing daily use.

LSD is produced in crystal form in illegal laboratories, mainly in the United States. A single dose of LSD is about 0.0001 gram and the price per gram is about $3000.

Plutonium – Chemical element Pu, atomic number 94

Plutonium cost per gramPlutonium is a radioactive, silver actinide metal, that takes on a dull gray, yellow, or olive green tarnish when oxidized. It has a high-heat production rate and a long half-life – 88 years.

Trace elements of plutonium are found in naturally occurring uranium ores, but plutonium is mostly synthetically produced. Plutonium is used as the explosive ingredient in nuclear weapons, though also used as a source of nuclear energy. The production cost is very high, leading to a cost per gram that’s greater than $4000.

Source: hypertextbook.com.

Painite

Painite cost per gramPainite is one of the rarest gem material on Earth. It is pink to red to brown in color and fluoresces green under short wave UV.

Painite was first found in Myanmar. Up till 2005 there were only eighteen known specimens of this rare gem, since then however more specimens have been discovered. Still, this mineral is rare enough to cost $9000 per gram.

Taaffeite

Taaffeite cost per gramTaaffeite is one of the rarest gemstone minerals in the world. It is purple and red and is made up of magnesium, beryllium and aluminum.

Taaffeite is almost exclusively found in Sri Lanka in alluvial deposits, however has also surfaced in Tanzania and Burma.

The red variant of Taaffeite is extremely rare, only about a dozen specimens currently exist. Price per gram can run between $10,000 to $20,000.

Source: gemstonesadvisor.com.

Tritium

Tritium cost per gramTritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The radioactive decay product of tritium cannot penetrate the human dermis, the main hazard is internal exposure from inhalation or ingestion, but with a short biological half life only large amounts pose a significant health risk.

Tritium is used in research, fusion reactors and neutron generators. Mixing tritium with a phosphor creates a continuous light source. This phenomenon is commonly used in emergency exit signs as well as firearm night sights, watches and other devices. Commercial demand for tritium is 400 grams per year, the cost of production and the rapid decay rate puts the cost at about $30,000 per gram.

Source: Tritium Supply Considerations, Scott Willms, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Diamonds

Diamonds cost per gramDiamond is an allotrope of carbon. It is the best known thermal conductor and the hardest natural material among naturally occurring substances. Due to it’s hard property diamonds are used for industrial cutting and polishing, however they are most commonly used in jewelry.

Diamonds form naturally over billions of years under intense heat and pressure and are brought to the surface by volcanic eruptions. Most of the Earth’s natural diamond deposits are found in Africa and some have been a source of conflict. Diamonds mined in unstable areas and sold to finance war are known as blood diamonds. Learn more about the issue at amnesty international.

Diamonds are the world’s most popular gemstone, they are valued according to their cut, color, carat and clarity. A 1 gram diamond can range from $46,750 to $737,000.

Source: Diamond registry.

Californium – Chemical element Cf, atomic number 98

Californium cost per gramCalifornium is a silvery white, malleable , radioactive actinide metal. It was first produced by Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Kenneth Street, Jr. and Albert Ghiorso at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1950. 0.000001 grams of californium-252 produces 170,000,000 neutrons per minute. It’s used as a neutron source for neutron activation to identify gold and silver ores and in neutron moisture gauges to find water and oil bearing layers in oil wells.

Californium is not produced in large quantities, only 8 grams of Californium-252 have been made in the west and sold for $27 million per gram.

Source: umich.edu.

Endohedral Fullerenes

Endohedral Fullerenes cost per gramEndohedral fullerenes was discovered in 1985 and is a cage of carbon atoms with a nitrogen atom inside. It has an extra long electron spin lifetime so current application of endohedral fullerenes are as tiny atomic clocks.

Endohedral fullerenes is the most expensive materiel commercially available for sale and it is priced at $145-$167 million.

Source: sciencealert.com.

Antimatter

Antimatter cost per gramAntimatter is a material composed of antiparticles – anti-electrons (positrons) that behave like electrons but have a positive charge and anti-protons that behave like protons but with a negative charge.

When antimatter particles interact with matter particles, they annihilate each other and produce energy. Speculation that antimatter-powered spacecraft might be an efficient way to explore the universe is what lead NASA to research antimatter. Antimatter particles are created in ultra high-speed collisions. The energy generated to create antimatter is far greater than can be extracted from antimatter reaction, rendering antimatter impractical given current technology.

NASA estimated that the cost to make antihydrogen is $62.5 trillion per gram.

Source: nasa.gov.


Rhodium - $24 per gram Platinum- $33 per gram Gold - $40 per gram Rhino Horn - $65 per gram Heroin - $110 per gram Methamphetamine- $120 per gram Cocaine- $600 per gram LSD- $3000 per gram Plutonium - $4000 per gram Painite - $9000 per gram Taaffeite- $20000 per gram Tritium- $30000 per gram Diamonds - $50000 per gram Californium- $27 million per gram Endohedral Fullerenes - $145 million per gram Antimatter- $62.5 trillion per gram

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2016 Supreme Court Justices Cheat Sheet, Bios and Position on the Issues

Supreme Court Justices. Anthony Kennedy - Reagan. Clarence Thomas - Bush, G. H. W. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Clinton. Stephen Breyer - Clinton. John G. Roberts- Bush, G. W. Samuel Alito - Bush, G. W. Sonia Sotomayor - Obama. Elena Kagan - Obama.

Anthony McLeod Kennedy, Associate Justice

Born in Sacramento, California, July 23, 1936. Nominated by President Ronald Reagan on November 11, 1987, and took office on February 18, 1988. Kennedy was preceded by Lewis Powell appointed by Richard Nixon. Kennedy is a Roman Catholic, Republican, married (since 1963) to Mary Davis and has 3 children.

Kennedy, who was appointed by a Republican president is expected, in theory, to be one of the conservative justices. However in practice, he has long been the most enigmatic of the swing voters on many of the Court’s 5–4 decisions.

Potions on the issues

Abortion
  • In Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) Kennedy voted to uphold Roe v. Wade (1973), which extended the 14th Amendment to a woman’s decision to have an abortion.
  • In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Kennedy, citing the First amendment, disagreed with the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
Capital punishment
  • In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Kennedy agreed that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional.
  • In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Kennedy delivered the majority opinion which ruled unconstitutional the death penalty for a man convicted of rape, based on the prohibition in the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Kennedy wrote that “the death penalty should not be expanded to instances where the victim’s life was not taken.”.
Environment
Gay rights
  • In Romer v. Evans (1996) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to recognize the GLBT as a constitutionally-protected class.
  • In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to disallow all sodomy laws against same-sex activity.
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
  • In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Kennedy joined the majority ruling that the Boy Scouts of America had a First Amendment right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters.
Gun control
  • In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Kennedy joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
Habeas corpus
  • In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Kennedy joined the Plurality, ruling that enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their status before an impartial authority.
  • In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Kennedy delivered the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice

Born in Pin Point, Georgia, June 23, 1948. Nominated by George H. W. Bush on July 1, 1991, narrowly confirmed and took office on October 23, 1991. Thomas was preceded by Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American justice to serve on the Supreme Court, appointed by Lyndon Johnson. Thomas is a Roman Catholic, Republican, on his second marriage to Virginia Lamp and has one child.

Thomas is the second African-American justice to serve on the Supreme Court. Thomas is a quintessential conservative justice.

Potions on the issues

Abortion
  • In Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) Thomas join the dissented from the plurality’s decision to uphold Roe v. Wade (1973), and strike down the spousal notification law, contending that Roe was incorrectly decided questioning the fundamental right to an abortion, the “right to privacy,” and the strict scrutiny application in Roe.
  • In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Thomas disagreed with the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
Capital punishment
  • In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Thomas disagreed with the Court’s ruling that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional, stating that the Eighth Amendment provided no measures to determine what is “cruel and unusual”.
  • In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Thomas joined the dissent arguing that child rape is a capital offense and can carry the death penalty.
Environment
Gay rights
  • In Romer v. Evans (1996) Thomas joined the dissent arguing that if it is constitutionally permissible for a state to make homosexual conduct criminal, surely it is constitutionally permissible for a State to enact laws disfavoring homosexual conduct.
  • In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Thomas joined the majority ruling that the Boy Scouts of America had a First Amendment right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters.
  • In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Thomas dissented the majority ruling joining the argument that disallowing sodomy laws against same-sex activity dismantles the structure of constitutional law that has permitted a distinction between heterosexual and homosexual unions.
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Thomas dissented the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Thomas dissented the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
Gun control
  • In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Thomas joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
Habeas corpus
  • In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Thomas dissented from the Plurality ruling, he was the only justice who sided entirely with the Executive branch. In Thomas’s view, based on the security interests at stake enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens may not have the right of due process.
  • In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Thomas joined the dissent against the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice

Born in New York City, New York, March 15 1933. Nominated by Bill Clinton on June 14, 1993 and took office August 10, 1993. Ginsburg was preceded by Byron White appointed by John F. Kennedy. Ginsburg is a Jewish, Democrat, widowed since 2010 and has 2 children.

Ginsberg is the second female justice to serve in the Supreme Court. Before becoming a judge, she served as the director of the Women’s Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union. Ginsburg is generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court.

Potions on the issues

Abortion
  • In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Ginsburg joined the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
Capital punishment
  • In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Ginsburg agreed that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional.
  • In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Ginsburg joined the majority opinion which ruled unconstitutional the death penalty for a man convicted of rape, based on the prohibition in the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment.
Environment
Gay rights
  • In Romer v. Evans (1996) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to recognize the GLBT as a constitutionally-protected class.
  • In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Ginsburg joined the dissent, objecting to the majority ruling to uphold the Boy Scouts of America’s organizational right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters, based on the fact that in “the Boy Scouts’ Law and Oath” there is no term expressing any position on sexual matters.
  • In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to disallow all sodomy laws against same-sex activity.
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
Gun control
  • In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Ginsburg dissented from the majority ruling to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
Habeas corpus
  • In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Ginsburg joined the Plurality, ruling that enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their status before an impartial authority. However, she dissented from the plurality’s ruling that “Authorization for Use of Military Force” established Congressional authorization for the detention of enemy combatants.
  • In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Ginsburg joined the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

Stephen Gerald Breyer, Associate Justice

Born in San Francisco, California, August 15, 1938. Nominated by Bill Clinton May 13, 1994 and took office August 3, 1994. Breyer was preceded by Harry Blackmun who was nominated by Richard Nixon. Breyer is a Jewish, Democrat, married to Joanna Freda Hare (since 1967) and has 3 children.

Breyer is considered one of the best writers in the federal court system, he has authored several books about federal regulation. Breyer occasionally sides with the conservative wing, however more often allies with the Court’s liberal wing.

Abortion
  • In the case of Hill v. Colorado (2000) Breyer joined the Court’s rejection of pro-life activists’ challenge to a Colorado statute limiting their ability to engage in leafleting and counseling outside abortion clinics.
Capital punishment
  • In Atkins v. Virginia (2002) and Roper v. Simmons (2005) Breyer agreed that the execution of the mentally ill and those under 18 at the time of the crime was unconstitutional.
  • In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Breyer joined the majority opinion which ruled unconstitutional the death penalty for a man convicted of rape, based on the prohibition in the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment.
Environment
Gay rights
  • In Romer v. Evans (1996) Breyer joined the majority ruling to recognize the GLBT as a constitutionally-protected class.
  • In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) Breyer joined the dissent, objecting to the majority ruling to uphold the Boy Scouts of America’s organizational right to ban homosexuals from being scoutmasters, based on the fact that in “the Boy Scouts’ Law and Oath” there is no term expressing any position on sexual matters.
  • In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) Breyer joined the majority ruling to disallow all sodomy laws against same-sex activity.
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Breyer joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Breyer joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
Gun control
  • In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Breyer dissented from the majority ruling to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
Habeas corpus
  • In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004) Breyer joined the Plurality, ruling that enemy combatants who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their status before an impartial authority.
  • In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Breyer joined the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

John G. Roberts, Jr., Chief Justice of the United States

Born in Buffalo, New York, January 27, 1955. Nominated by George W. Bush July 19, 2005 and took office September 29, 2005. Roberts was preceded by James Buckley who was appointed by Ronald Reagan. Roberts is Roman Catholic, Republican, married to Jane Sullivan (since 1996) and has 2 children.

Roberts belongs to the conservative wing of the Court, though he did side with the liberal wing when reaffirming the legality of Obamacare.

Capital punishment
  • In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Roberts joined the dissent arguing that child rape is a capital offense and can carry the death penalty.
Environment
  • In Rapanos v. United States (2006) Roberts concurred with the Court’s ruling to prevent federal jurisdiction to regulate isolated wetlands under the Clean Water Act.
  • In Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Roberts went against the majority ruling to force the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases as pollutants, arguing that Massachusetts’ alleged injury was too speculative due to insufficient scientific evidence that greenhouse gases contribute to global warming, and that there is no traceable causal connection between the EPA’s refusal to enforce emission standards and petitioners’ injuries.
  • In Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper Inc. (2009) Roberts joined the majority to uphold the EPA’s decision to allow cost–benefit analysis when determining best technology available to maintain national environmental standards.
  • In Coeur Alaska, Inc. v. Southeast Alaska Conservation Council (2009) Roberts joined the majority, voting in favor of an Alaskan mining company, to uphold a USACE permit to dump waste into a lake.
Gay rights
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Roberts dissented the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples, arguing the “Defense of Marriage Act” was unconstitutional because the federal government was interfering with state control of marriage.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Roberts dissented the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry, criticizing the Court for expanding fundamental rights without caution or regard for history – namely the historic definition of marriage the “the union of a man and a woman”.
Gun control
  • In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Roberts joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
Habeas corpus
  • In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Roberts dissented from the majority ruling and argued against Guantanamo Bay prisoners having a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr., Associate Justice

Born in Trenton, New Jersey, April 1, 1950. Nominated by George W. Bush on November 10, 2005 and took office January 31, 2006. Alito was preceded by Sandra Day O’Connor who was appointed by Ronald Reagan. Alito is a Roman Catholic, Republican, married to Martha Bomgardner and has 2 children.
Alito belongs to the conservative wing of the Court.

Capital punishment
  • In Kennedy v. Louisiana (2008) Alito led the dissent arguing that child rape is a capital offense and can carry the death penalty.
Environment
  • In Rapanos v. United States (2006) Alito joined the plurality ruling to prevent federal jurisdiction to regulate isolated wetlands under the Clean Water Act.
  • In Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Alito joined Roberts in the dissent, voting against forcing the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases as pollutants, arguing that Massachusetts’ alleged injury was too speculative due to insufficient scientific evidence that greenhouse gases contribute to global warming, and that there is no traceable causal connection between the EPA’s refusal to enforce emission standards and petitioners’ injuries.
  • In Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper Inc. (2009) Alito joined the majority to uphold the EPA’s decision to allow cost–benefit analysis when determining best technology available to maintain national environmental standards.
  • In Coeur Alaska, Inc. v. Southeast Alaska Conservation Council (2009) Alito joined the majority, voting in favor of an Alaskan mining company, to uphold a USACE permit to dump waste into a lake.
Gay rights
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Alito dissented the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples, arguing the “Defense of Marriage Act” was unconstitutional because the federal government was interfering with state control of marriage.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Alito dissented the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.
Gun control
  • In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) Alito joined the majority to overturn the ban on handguns in the District of Columbia, as the ban violates the Second Amendment.
Habeas corpus
  • In Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Alito joined the dissent against the majority ruling that Guantanamo Bay prisoners have a constitutional right to go to federal court to challenge their continued detention.

Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice

Born in New York City, New York, June 25, 1954. Nomintaed in May 2009 by Barack Obama and took office on August 8, 2009. Sotomayor was preceded by David Souter who was nominated by George H. W. Bush. Sotomayor is a Roman catholic, Democrat, married to Kevin Noonan (since 1976) and has no children.

Sotomayor’s desire to become a judge was inspired by the TV show Perry Mason. She is the third woman chosen to serve in the Supreme Court and the first Latina Supreme Court Justice in U.S. history.

Gay rights
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Sotomayor joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Sotomayor joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.

Elena Kagan, Associate Justice

Born in New York City, New York, April 28 ,1960. Nominated by Barack Obama May 10, 2010 and took office August 7, 2010. Kagan was preceded by John Paul Stevens who was nominated by Gerald Ford. Kagan is a Jewish, Democrat, unmarried and has no children.
Kagen is the forth woman chosen to serve in the Supreme Court.

Gay rights
  • In United States v. Windsor (2013) Kagan joined the majority ruling to strike down a federal law denying benefits to married same-sex couples.
  • In Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) Kagan joined the majority ruling to guarantee same-sex couples the right to marry.

Anthony Kennedy John G. Roberts Clarence Thomas Samuel Alito Ruth Bader Ginsburg Sonia Sotomayor Stephen Breyer Elena Kagan

Additional reading:

 

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SQL (Structured Query Language) Cheat Sheet

Operators

=
Equal

 

<>
Not equal

 

>
Greater than

 

<
Less than.

 

>=
Greater than or equal.

 

<=
Less than or equal.

 

BETWEEN
Between an inclusive range.

 

IN
Search for exact value in a list.

 

LIKE
Search for a pattern.

 

%
Wildcard/s in a pattern.

 

AND
Used between arguments in WHERE statement.

 

OR
Used between arguments in WHERE statement

 

ASC
Alphabetical and numerical order – default for ORDER BY statement

 

DESC
Reverse alphabetical and numerical order

 

Data Types

integer(size)
Integers only. Maximum number of digits specified in parenthesis.

 

int(size)
Integers only. Maximum number of digits specified in parenthesis.

 

smallint(size)
Integers only. Maximum number of digits specified in parenthesis.

 

tinyint(size)
Integers only. Maximum number of digits specified in parenthesis.

 

decimal(size,d)
Hold numbers with fractions. Maximum number of digits specified in “size”. Maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal is specified in “d”.

 

numeric(size,d)
Hold numbers with fractions. Maximum number of digits specified in “size”. Maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal is specified in “d”.

 

char(size)
Holds a fixed length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The fixed size is specified in parenthesis.

 

varchar(size)
Holds a variable length string (can contain letters, numbers, and special characters). The maximum size is specified in parenthesis.

 

date(yyyymmdd)
Holds a date

 

Functions

SUM(column)
Return the total sum of columns’ values

 

AVG(column)
Return the average value of a column

 

COUNT(column)
Return the number of rows (excluding NULL) of a column

 

MAX(column)
Return the highest value of a column

 

MIN(column)
Return the lowest value of a column

 

Database Manipulation

Create database
CREATE DATABASE database_name

 

Delete database
DROP DATABASE database_name

 

Table Manipulation

Create table
CREATE TABLE “table_name”
(“column_1” “data_type_for_column_1”,
“column_2” “data_type_for_column_2”,
… )

 

Add column to a table
ALTER TABLE table_name
ADD column_name datatype

 

Delete column from a table
ALTER TABLE table_name
DROP column_name datatype

 

Delete table
DROP TABLE table_name

 

Index Manipulation

Create index
CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column_name_1, column_name_2, …)

 

Create a unique index
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column_name_1, column_name_2, …)

 

Delete index
DROP INDEX table_name.index_name

 

Data Manipulation

Insert new rows into a table
INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value_1, value_2,….)
or
INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2,…)
VALUES (value_1, value_2,….)

 

Update column/s
UPDATE table_name
SET column_name_1 = new_value_1, column_name_2 = new_value_2
WHERE column_name = some_value

 

Delete row/s
DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE column_name = some_value

 

Delete the data from a table
TRUNCATE TABLE table_name

 

Select

Select all data from a table
SELECT *
FROM table_name

 

Select all data from specified columns
SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name

 

Select using alias
SELECT table_alias.column_name AS column_alias
FROM table_name AS table_alias

 

Select only distinct (different) data from a table.
SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)
FROM table_name

 

Limit selection
Select data using WHERE, AND, OR
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name
WHERE column operator value
AND column operator value
OR column operator value

 

Select data using IN.
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name
WHERE column_name IN (value1, value2, …)

 

Order selection
Order results buy column value ascending or descending.
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name
ORDER BY column_1 DESC/ASC

 

Join selection
Select all matching rows from 2 tables.
SELECT column_1_name, column_2_name, …
FROM first_table_name
INNER JOIN second_table_name

 

Select all rows from the first table, even if there are no matches in the second table.
SELECT column_1_name, column_2_name, …
FROM first_table_name
LEFT JOIN second_table_name
ON first_table_name.key = second_table_name.foreign_key

 

Select all rows from the second table, even if there are no matches in the first table.
SELECT column_1_name, column_2_name, …
FROM first_table_name
RIGHT JOIN second_table_name
ON first_table_name.key = second_table_name.foreign_key

 

Add up selections
Select all the values from multiple SQL statements.
SQL_Statement_1
UNION ALL
SQL_Statement_2

 

Select all the different values from multiple SQL statements.
SQL_Statement_1
UNION
SQL_Statement_2 Select

 

Populate with selection
Select and insert into another table.
SELECT column_name(s)
INTO new_table_name
FROM source_table_name
WHERE …

 

Select and insert into another database.
SELECT column_name(s)
IN external_database_name
FROM source_table_name
WHERE …

 

Populate a virtual table with the result-set of a SELECT statement.
CREATE VIEW view_name AS
SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE …

 

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ASCII Table

ASCII control characters (character code 0-31)

The first 32 characters in the ASCII-table are unprintable control codes and are used to control peripherals such as printers.

DEC OCT HEX BIN Symbol HTML Number HTML Name Description
0 000 00 00000000 NUL &#000; Null char
1 001 01 00000001 SOH &#001; Start of Heading
2 002 02 00000010 STX &#002; Start of Text
3 003 03 00000011 ETX &#003; End of Text
4 004 04 00000100 EOT &#004; End of Transmission
5 005 05 00000101 ENQ &#005; Enquiry
6 006 06 00000110 ACK &#006; Acknowledgment
7 007 07 00000111 BEL &#007; Bell
8 010 08 00001000 BS &#008; Back Space
9 011 09 00001001 HT &#009; Horizontal Tab
10 012 0A 00001010 LF &#010; Line Feed
11 013 0B 00001011 VT &#011; Vertical Tab
12 014 0C 00001100 FF &#012; Form Feed
13 015 0D 00001101 CR &#013; Carriage Return
14 016 0E 00001110 SO &#014; Shift Out / X-On
15 017 0F 00001111 SI &#015; Shift In / X-Off
16 020 10 00010000 DLE &#016; Data Line Escape
17 021 11 00010001 DC1 &#017; Device Control 1 (oft. XON)
18 022 12 00010010 DC2 &#018; Device Control 2
19 023 13 00010011 DC3 &#019; Device Control 3 (oft. XOFF)
20 024 14 00010100 DC4 &#020; Device Control 4
21 025 15 00010101 NAK &#021; Negative Acknowledgement
22 026 16 00010110 SYN &#022; Synchronous Idle
23 027 17 00010111 ETB &#023; End of Transmit Block
24 030 18 00011000 CAN &#024; Cancel
25 031 19 00011001 EM &#025; End of Medium
26 032 1A 00011010 SUB &#026; Substitute
27 033 1B 00011011 ESC &#027; Escape
28 034 1C 00011100 FS &#028; File Separator
29 035 1D 00011101 GS &#029; Group Separator
30 036 1E 00011110 RS &#030; Record Separator
31 037 1F 00011111 US &#031; Unit Separator

ASCII printable characters (character code 32-127)

Codes 32-127 are common for all the different variations of the ASCII table, they are called printable characters, represent letters, digits, punctuation marks, and a few miscellaneous symbols. You will find almost every character on your keyboard. Character 127 represents the command DEL.

DEC OCT HEX BIN Symbol HTML Number HTML Name Description
32 040 20 00100000 &#32; Space
33 041 21 00100001 ! &#33; Exclamation mark
34 042 22 00100010 &#34; &quot; Double quotes (or speech marks)
35 043 23 00100011 # &#35; Number
36 044 24 00100100 $ &#36; Dollar
37 045 25 00100101 % &#37; Procenttecken
38 046 26 00100110 & &#38; &amp; Ampersand
39 047 27 00100111 &#39; Single quote
40 050 28 00101000 ( &#40; Open parenthesis (or open bracket)
41 051 29 00101001 ) &#41; Close parenthesis (or close bracket)
42 052 2A 00101010 * &#42; Asterisk
43 053 2B 00101011 + &#43; Plus
44 054 2C 00101100 , &#44; Comma
45 055 2D 00101101 &#45; Hyphen
46 056 2E 00101110 . &#46; Period, dot or full stop
47 057 2F 00101111 / &#47; Slash or divide
48 060 30 00110000 0 &#48; Zero
49 061 31 00110001 1 &#49; One
50 062 32 00110010 2 &#50; Two
51 063 33 00110011 3 &#51; Three
52 064 34 00110100 4 &#52; Four
53 065 35 00110101 5 &#53; Five
54 066 36 00110110 6 &#54; Six
55 067 37 00110111 7 &#55; Seven
56 070 38 00111000 8 &#56; Eight
57 071 39 00111001 9 &#57; Nine
58 072 3A 00111010 : &#58; Colon
59 073 3B 00111011 ; &#59; Semicolon
60 074 3C 00111100 < &#60; &lt; Less than (or open angled bracket)
61 075 3D 00111101 = &#61; Equals
62 076 3E 00111110 > &#62; &gt; Greater than (or close angled bracket)
63 077 3F 00111111 ? &#63; Question mark
64 100 40 01000000 @ &#64; At symbol
65 101 41 01000001 A &#65; Uppercase A
66 102 42 01000010 B &#66; Uppercase B
67 103 43 01000011 C &#67; Uppercase C
68 104 44 01000100 D &#68; Uppercase D
69 105 45 01000101 E &#69; Uppercase E
70 106 46 01000110 F &#70; Uppercase F
71 107 47 01000111 G &#71; Uppercase G
72 110 48 01001000 H &#72; Uppercase H
73 111 49 01001001 I &#73; Uppercase I
74 112 4A 01001010 J &#74; Uppercase J
75 113 4B 01001011 K &#75; Uppercase K
76 114 4C 01001100 L &#76; Uppercase L
77 115 4D 01001101 M &#77; Uppercase M
78 116 4E 01001110 N &#78; Uppercase N
79 117 4F 01001111 O &#79; Uppercase O
80 120 50 01010000 P &#80; Uppercase P
81 121 51 01010001 Q &#81; Uppercase Q
82 122 52 01010010 R &#82; Uppercase R
83 123 53 01010011 S &#83; Uppercase S
84 124 54 01010100 T &#84; Uppercase T
85 125 55 01010101 U &#85; Uppercase U
86 126 56 01010110 V &#86; Uppercase V
87 127 57 01010111 W &#87; Uppercase W
88 130 58 01011000 X &#88; Uppercase X
89 131 59 01011001 Y &#89; Uppercase Y
90 132 5A 01011010 Z &#90; Uppercase Z
91 133 5B 01011011 [ &#91; Opening bracket
92 134 5C 01011100 \ &#92; Backslash
93 135 5D 01011101 ] &#93; Closing bracket
94 136 5E 01011110 ^ &#94; Caret – circumflex
95 137 5F 01011111 _ &#95; Underscore
96 140 60 01100000 ` &#96; Grave accent
97 141 61 01100001 a &#97; Lowercase a
98 142 62 01100010 b &#98; Lowercase b
99 143 63 01100011 c &#99; Lowercase c
100 144 64 01100100 d &#100; Lowercase d
101 145 65 01100101 e &#101; Lowercase e
102 146 66 01100110 f &#102; Lowercase f
103 147 67 01100111 g &#103; Lowercase g
104 150 68 01101000 h &#104; Lowercase h
105 151 69 01101001 i &#105; Lowercase i
106 152 6A 01101010 j &#106; Lowercase j
107 153 6B 01101011 k &#107; Lowercase k
108 154 6C 01101100 l &#108; Lowercase l
109 155 6D 01101101 m &#109; Lowercase m
110 156 6E 01101110 n &#110; Lowercase n
111 157 6F 01101111 o &#111; Lowercase o
112 160 70 01110000 p &#112; Lowercase p
113 161 71 01110001 q &#113; Lowercase q
114 162 72 01110010 r &#114; Lowercase r
115 163 73 01110011 s &#115; Lowercase s
116 164 74 01110100 t &#116; Lowercase t
117 165 75 01110101 u &#117; Lowercase u
118 166 76 01110110 v &#118; Lowercase v
119 167 77 01110111 w &#119; Lowercase w
120 170 78 01111000 x &#120; Lowercase x
121 171 79 01111001 y &#121; Lowercase y
122 172 7A 01111010 z &#122; Lowercase z
123 173 7B 01111011 { &#123; Opening brace
124 174 7C 01111100 | &#124; Vertical bar
125 175 7D 01111101 } &#125; Closing brace
126 176 7E 01111110 ~ &#126; Equivalency sign – tilde
127 177 7F 01111111 &#127; Delete

The extended ASCII codes (character code 128-255)

There are several different variations of the 8-bit ASCII table. The table below is according to ISO 8859-1, also called ISO Latin-1. Codes 128-159 contain the Microsoft® Windows Latin-1 extended characters.

DEC OCT HEX BIN Symbol HTML Number HTML Name Description
128 200 80 10000000 &#128; &euro; Euro sign
129 201 81 10000001
130 202 82 10000010 &#130; &sbquo; Single low-9 quotation mark
131 203 83 10000011 ƒ &#131; &fnof; Latin small letter f with hook
132 204 84 10000100 &#132; &bdquo; Double low-9 quotation mark
133 205 85 10000101 &#133; &hellip; Horizontal ellipsis
134 206 86 10000110 &#134; &dagger; Dagger
135 207 87 10000111 &#135; &Dagger; Double dagger
136 210 88 10001000 ˆ &#136; &circ; Modifier letter circumflex accent
137 211 89 10001001 &#137; &permil; Per mille sign
138 212 8A 10001010 Š &#138; &Scaron; Latin capital letter S with caron
139 213 8B 10001011 &#139; &lsaquo; Single left-pointing angle quotation
140 214 8C 10001100 Π&#140; &OElig; Latin capital ligature OE
141 215 8D 10001101
142 216 8E 10001110 Ž &#142; Latin captial letter Z with caron
143 217 8F 10001111
144 220 90 10010000
145 221 91 10010001 &#145; &lsquo; Left single quotation mark
146 222 92 10010010 &#146; &rsquo; Right single quotation mark
147 223 93 10010011 &#147; &ldquo; Left double quotation mark
148 224 94 10010100 &#148; &rdquo; Right double quotation mark
149 225 95 10010101 &#149; &bull; Bullet
150 226 96 10010110 &#150; &ndash; En dash
151 227 97 10010111 &#151; &mdash; Em dash
152 230 98 10011000 ˜ &#152; &tilde; Small tilde
153 231 99 10011001 &#153; &trade; Trade mark sign
154 232 9A 10011010 š &#154; &scaron; Latin small letter S with caron
155 233 9B 10011011 &#155; &rsaquo; Single right-pointing angle quotation mark
156 234 9C 10011100 œ &#156; &oelig; Latin small ligature oe
157 235 9D 10011101
158 236 9E 10011110 ž &#158; Latin small letter z with caron
159 237 9F 10011111 Ÿ &#159; &Yuml; Latin capital letter Y with diaeresis
160 240 A0 10100000 &#160; &nbsp; Non-breaking space
161 241 A1 10100001 ¡ &#161; &iexcl; Inverted exclamation mark
162 242 A2 10100010 ¢ &#162; &cent; Cent sign
163 243 A3 10100011 £ &#163; &pound; Pound sign
164 244 A4 10100100 ¤ &#164; &curren; Currency sign
165 245 A5 10100101 ¥ &#165; &yen; Yen sign
166 246 A6 10100110 ¦ &#166; &brvbar; Pipe, Broken vertical bar
167 247 A7 10100111 § &#167; &sect; Section sign
168 250 A8 10101000 ¨ &#168; &uml; Spacing diaeresis – umlaut
169 251 A9 10101001 © &#169; &copy; Copyright sign
170 252 AA 10101010 ª &#170; &ordf; Feminine ordinal indicator
171 253 AB 10101011 « &#171; &laquo; Left double angle quotes
172 254 AC 10101100 ¬ &#172; &not; Not sign
173 255 AD 10101101 &#173; &shy; Soft hyphen
174 256 AE 10101110 ® &#174; &reg; Registered trade mark sign
175 257 AF 10101111 ¯ &#175; &macr; Spacing macron – overline
176 260 B0 10110000 ° &#176; &deg; Degree sign
177 261 B1 10110001 ± &#177; &plusmn; Plus-or-minus sign
178 262 B2 10110010 ² &#178; &sup2; Superscript two – squared
179 263 B3 10110011 ³ &#179; &sup3; Superscript three – cubed
180 264 B4 10110100 ´ &#180; &acute; Acute accent – spacing acute
181 265 B5 10110101 µ &#181; &micro; Micro sign
182 266 B6 10110110 &#182; &para; Pilcrow sign – paragraph sign
183 267 B7 10110111 · &#183; &middot; Middle dot – Georgian comma
184 270 B8 10111000 ¸ &#184; &cedil; Spacing cedilla
185 271 B9 10111001 ¹ &#185; &sup1; Superscript one
186 272 BA 10111010 º &#186; &ordm; Masculine ordinal indicator
187 273 BB 10111011 » &#187; &raquo; Right double angle quotes
188 274 BC 10111100 ¼ &#188; &frac14; Fraction one quarter
189 275 BD 10111101 ½ &#189; &frac12; Fraction one half
190 276 BE 10111110 ¾ &#190; &frac34; Fraction three quarters
191 277 BF 10111111 ¿ &#191; &iquest; Inverted question mark
192 300 C0 11000000 À &#192; &Agrave; Latin capital letter A with grave
193 301 C1 11000001 Á &#193; &Aacute; Latin capital letter A with acute
194 302 C2 11000010 Â &#194; &Acirc; Latin capital letter A with circumflex
195 303 C3 11000011 Ã &#195; &Atilde; Latin capital letter A with tilde
196 304 C4 11000100 Ä &#196; &Auml; Latin capital letter A with diaeresis
197 305 C5 11000101 Å &#197; &Aring; Latin capital letter A with ring above
198 306 C6 11000110 Æ &#198; &AElig; Latin capital letter AE
199 307 C7 11000111 Ç &#199; &Ccedil; Latin capital letter C with cedilla
200 310 C8 11001000 È &#200; &Egrave; Latin capital letter E with grave
201 311 C9 11001001 É &#201; &Eacute; Latin capital letter E with acute
202 312 CA 11001010 Ê &#202; &Ecirc; Latin capital letter E with circumflex
203 313 CB 11001011 Ë &#203; &Euml; Latin capital letter E with diaeresis
204 314 CC 11001100 Ì &#204; &Igrave; Latin capital letter I with grave
205 315 CD 11001101 Í &#205; &Iacute; Latin capital letter I with acute
206 316 CE 11001110 Î &#206; &Icirc; Latin capital letter I with circumflex
207 317 CF 11001111 Ï &#207; &Iuml; Latin capital letter I with diaeresis
208 320 D0 11010000 Ð &#208; &ETH; Latin capital letter ETH
209 321 D1 11010001 Ñ &#209; &Ntilde; Latin capital letter N with tilde
210 322 D2 11010010 Ò &#210; &Ograve; Latin capital letter O with grave
211 323 D3 11010011 Ó &#211; &Oacute; Latin capital letter O with acute
212 324 D4 11010100 Ô &#212; &Ocirc; Latin capital letter O with circumflex
213 325 D5 11010101 Õ &#213; &Otilde; Latin capital letter O with tilde
214 326 D6 11010110 Ö &#214; &Ouml; Latin capital letter O with diaeresis
215 327 D7 11010111 × &#215; &times; Multiplication sign
216 330 D8 11011000 Ø &#216; &Oslash; Latin capital letter O with slash
217 331 D9 11011001 Ù &#217; &Ugrave; Latin capital letter U with grave
218 332 DA 11011010 Ú &#218; &Uacute; Latin capital letter U with acute
219 333 DB 11011011 Û &#219; &Ucirc; Latin capital letter U with circumflex
220 334 DC 11011100 Ü &#220; &Uuml; Latin capital letter U with diaeresis
221 335 DD 11011101 Ý &#221; &Yacute; Latin capital letter Y with acute
222 336 DE 11011110 Þ &#222; &THORN; Latin capital letter THORN
223 337 DF 11011111 ß &#223; &szlig; Latin small letter sharp s – ess-zed
224 340 E0 11100000 à &#224; &agrave; Latin small letter a with grave
225 341 E1 11100001 á &#225; &aacute; Latin small letter a with acute
226 342 E2 11100010 â &#226; &acirc; Latin small letter a with circumflex
227 343 E3 11100011 ã &#227; &atilde; Latin small letter a with tilde
228 344 E4 11100100 ä &#228; &auml; Latin small letter a with diaeresis
229 345 E5 11100101 å &#229; &aring; Latin small letter a with ring above
230 346 E6 11100110 æ &#230; &aelig; Latin small letter ae
231 347 E7 11100111 ç &#231; &ccedil; Latin small letter c with cedilla
232 350 E8 11101000 è &#232; &egrave; Latin small letter e with grave
233 351 E9 11101001 é &#233; &eacute; Latin small letter e with acute
234 352 EA 11101010 ê &#234; &ecirc; Latin small letter e with circumflex
235 353 EB 11101011 ë &#235; &euml; Latin small letter e with diaeresis
236 354 EC 11101100 ì &#236; &igrave; Latin small letter i with grave
237 355 ED 11101101 í &#237; &iacute; Latin small letter i with acute
238 356 EE 11101110 î &#238; &icirc; Latin small letter i with circumflex
239 357 EF 11101111 ï &#239; &iuml; Latin small letter i with diaeresis
240 360 F0 11110000 ð &#240; &eth; Latin small letter eth
241 361 F1 11110001 ñ &#241; &ntilde; Latin small letter n with tilde
242 362 F2 11110010 ò &#242; &ograve; Latin small letter o with grave
243 363 F3 11110011 ó &#243; &oacute; Latin small letter o with acute
244 364 F4 11110100 ô &#244; &ocirc; Latin small letter o with circumflex
245 365 F5 11110101 õ &#245; &otilde; Latin small letter o with tilde
246 366 F6 11110110 ö &#246; &ouml; Latin small letter o with diaeresis
247 367 F7 11110111 ÷ &#247; &divide; Division sign
248 370 F8 11111000 ø &#248; &oslash; Latin small letter o with slash
249 371 F9 11111001 ù &#249; &ugrave; Latin small letter u with grave
250 372 FA 11111010 ú &#250; &uacute; Latin small letter u with acute
251 373 FB 11111011 û &#251; &ucirc; Latin small letter u with circumflex
252 374 FC 11111100 ü &#252; &uuml; Latin small letter u with diaeresis
253 375 FD 11111101 ý &#253; &yacute; Latin small letter y with acute
254 376 FE 11111110 þ &#254; &thorn; Latin small letter thorn
255 377 FF 11111111 ÿ &#255; &yuml; Latin small letter y with diaeresis
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